Zhuāngzǐ (pinyin), Chuang Tzu (W-G), or Chuang Tse (Chinese 庄子/莊子, literally meaning "Master Zhuang") was a famous philosopher in ancient China who lived around the 4th century BCE during the Warring States Period, corresponding to the Hundred Schools of Thought philosophical summit of Chinese thought. He was from the Town of Meng (蒙城 Méng Chéng) in the State of Song (now Shāngqiū 商邱, Henan). His given name was 周 Zhōu. He was also known as 蒙吏, Méng Official, 蒙莊 Méng Zhuāng
and 蒙叟 Méng Elder.
The Taoist book Zhuangzi (莊子) of the same name as the author is a composite of writings from various sources. The traditional view is that Zhuangzi himself wrote the first seven
chapters (the "inner" chapters) and his students and related thinkers were responsible for the other parts (the "outer" and
"miscellaneous" chapters). Strong proof of direct authorship by Zhuangzi of any of the text is difficult.
In general, Zhuangzi's philosophy is rather antinomian, arguing that our life is limited and things to know are unlimited. To use the limited to pursue the unlimited, he
said, was foolish. Our language, cognition, etc. are all biased with our own perspective so we should be hesitant in concluding that our conclusions are equally
right for all things (wanwu). Zhuangzi's thought can also be considered a precursor of multiculturalism and pluralism of systems of value. His pluralism even leads him to doubt the basis of pragmatic arguments (that a course of action
preserves our lives) since this presupposes that life is good and death bad. In the fourth section of "The Great Happiness"
(至樂 zhìlè, the eighteenth chapter of the book), Zhuangzi expresses pity to a skull he sees lying at the side
of the road. Zhuangzi laments that the skull is now dead, but the skull retorts, "How do you know it's bad to be dead?"
Another example points out that there is no universal standard of beauty. This is taken from the chapter "On Arranging
Things", also called "Discussion of Setting Things Right" or, in Burton Watson's translation, "Discussion on Making All Things Equal" (齊物論 qí wù lùn, the second chapter of
Mao Qiang and Li Ji [two beautiful courtesans] are what people consider beautiful, but if fish see them they will
swim into the depths; if birds see them, they will fly away into the air; if deer see them, they will gallop away. Among these
four, who knows what is rightly beautiful in the world?
However, this subjectivism is balanced by a kind of sensitive holism in the conclusion of the section called "What Fish Enjoy" (魚之樂, py yúzhīlè). The names have been changed to pinyin romanization for consistency:
Zhuangzi and Huizi were strolling along the dam of the Hao Waterfall when Zhuangzi said, "See how the minnows come
out and dart around where they please! That's what fish really enjoy!"
Huizi said, "You're not a fish — how do you
know what fish enjoy?"
Zhuangzi said, "You're not I, so how do you know I don't know what fish enjoy?"
Huizi said, "I'm
not you, so I certainly don't know what you know. On the other hand, you're certainly not a fish — so that still proves
you don't know what fish enjoy!"
Zhuangzi said, "Let's go back to your original question, please. You asked me how I know
what fish enjoy — so you already knew I knew it when you asked the question. I know it by standing here beside the Hao."
- Autumn Floods section XVII, translated Burton Watson
Another well-known part of the book is also found in the "On Arranging Things" chapter. The section is usually
called "Zhuang Zhou dreamed he was a butterfly" (莊周夢蝶 Zhuāng Zhōu mèng dié). The section relates that one night, Zhuang Zi
dreamed that he was a carefree butterfly flying happily. After he woke up, he wondered how he could determine whether he was
Zhuangzi who had just finished dreaming he was a butterfly, or a butterfly who had just started dreaming he was Zhuangzi.
It hints at many questions in the philosophy of mind, philosophy of language and epistemology. The name of the passage has become a common Chinese idiom, and has spread into Western languages as well. Zhuangzi's philosophy was very influential on the development of
Chinese Buddhism, especially Chan, and Zen which evolved out of Chan. The book containing it is widely regarded as both deeply insightful in thought and as
an achievement of the Chinese poetical essay form. It uses Chinese language in complex, mutli-layered and often playful ways, and is notoriously difficult to translate. However, some sinologists have tried. A very popular translation is the one by Burton Watson. Other major translations have been done by Thomas Merton and A. C. Graham. Graham's is, to date, the most academically thorough, but Watson's is highly praised for its poetic style.
Watson, Burton. Trans. 1964. Chuang Tzu: Basic Writings. Columbia University Press. Reprint: 1996. ISBN 0-231-08606-7; ISBN 0-231-10595-9 (pbk).
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